When it comes to installing solar panels at home, one of the initial inquiries that homeowners often raise is, “How many solar panels are required to provide power to my house?”
Understanding Your Solar Project Objectives
The objective of any solar project isn’t merely to fill every available rooftop space with panels. Instead, it’s to attain a complete, 100% offset of your electricity consumption, thus maximizing savings. The quantity of panels needed to fully power a house is contingent upon three critical factors:
1. Your home’s energy consumption
2. Sunlight exposure in your area
3. The power rating of the solar panels
This article will guide you on how to calculate the number of panels you’ll need to power your house manually. Alternatively, if you wish to avoid the math, reach out to an Energy Advisor to design a tailored solar system that fits your needs.
General Estimate of How Many Solar Panels Needed
So, how many solar panels are necessary to power a home? The answer varies. Generally, an average American household would need anywhere between 10 and 20 solar panels to offset their yearly electricity consumption. The primary goal is to offset 100% of your electric bill, and your solar system will be sized to match your average electricity usage.
Calculating Number of Solar Panels: The Formula
Here’s a fundamental equation that will help you estimate the number of solar panels your house will need:
[Solar Panel Wattage] x [Peak Sun Hours] x [Number of Panels] = Daily Electricity Use
Given that electricity use, peak sun hours, and panel wattage will differ for everyone, we’ll delve into how you can figure out each of these variables. Subsequently, we’ll walk through an illustrative scenario based on national averages.
Determining Your Average Daily Electricity Usage
Start by pinpointing your average daily electricity usage. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that the average US household used around 10,715 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity annually in 2020. This translates to approximately:
– 893 kWh per month
– Roughly 30 kWh per day
Keep in mind that these figures fluctuate significantly from state to state. For instance, the average daily usage hovered around 18 kWh in Hawaii and 40 kWh in Louisiana. For our illustrative scenario, we’ll use the national average of 30 kWh per day.
Using Utility Bills to Calculate Usage
The simplest way to find your daily electricity usage is by scrutinizing your recent utility bills. They should outline your usage over 30 days (or whichever your payment period might be), providing you with a good understanding of your daily electricity consumption. You’ll need to divide your total usage for that period by the number of days.
As electricity usage varies monthly, averaging several bills will provide a more accurate estimate.
With your daily electricity usage identified, the next step is to determine your system’s potential peak sun hours per day.
The amount of sunlight, or peak sun hours, your location receives is a critical factor in determining the number of solar panels you need. A peak sun hour is when the sunlight intensity, known as solar irradiance, averages 1,000 watts per square meter or 1 kW/m².
In the US, the average peak sun hours range from over 5.75 hours per day in the Southwest to less than 4 hours per day in the northern parts of the country.
Using Tools to Estimate Peak Sun Hours
To estimate the average peak sun hours in your area, refer to the map provided or use the peak sun hours calculator to obtain a more precise figure for your location. Based on this map, the US appears to be roughly divided into regions receiving less than or more than 4.5 peak sun hours. Thus, for our example, we’ll use the figure of 4.5 peak sun hours.
Selecting Solar Panels with the Right Power Rating
The final variable in this equation is each solar panel’s power rating, which indicates how much electricity it can generate per peak sun hour. This rating is measured in Watts, and panels typically range from 250W to 450W. Based on sales data, 400W panels seem to strike the perfect balance between output and cost per watt, making them a popular choice.
Should your roof space be limited, you might consider a higher power rating to require fewer panels. Conversely, if cost is a concern, you might opt for a lower wattage. Each homeowner has unique goals, so select the panels that best align with your needs.
For our illustrative scenario, we’ll use 400W panels.
Crunching the Numbers: An Example
Now that we have established our three variables, we can calculate how many solar panels are needed to power a house.
Given the following parameters:
– Daily electricity consumption: 30 kWh (or 30,000 Watt-hours)
– Average peak sun hours: 4.5 hours per day
– Average panel wattage: 400W
We can rearrange the equation from earlier like so:
Daily Electricity Consumption / Peak Sun Hours / Panel Wattage = Number of Solar Panels
By plugging in our example figures, we get:
30,000 Watt-hours / 4.5 peak sun hours / 400W = 16.66 panels
Rounding up, we find that an average American household requires about 17 solar panels to completely offset electricity consumption.
For context, as of August 2022, the average electricity price in the US was 16.7 cents per kilowatt-hour, while the cost of electricity from solar systems ranges between 6 and 8 cents per kilowatt-hour. We’ll leave it to you to calculate the potential savings.
Alternative Method: Using a Solar Calculator
Let’s now turn to a simpler way to determine how many solar panels your house might need. After walking through the manual calculations, we’ll introduce you to our solar calculator, a handy tool that uses satellite technology for accurate planning of home solar projects. Simply input your address and set your average energy bill to calculate the size of the solar system you need, and the potential savings from switching to solar.
Underneath the average energy bill slider, the calculator will provide an estimated system size in kW. You can then convert kW into Watts by multiplying by 1,000 (i.e., 5.2 kW becomes 5,200W), and then divide the total system size in Watts by the power rating of your preferred panels. Using our example of 400W panels, you would need 13 solar panels.
System size (5,200 Watts) / Panel power rating (400 Watts) = 13 panels
Conclusion: The Benefits of Going Solar
In conclusion, the shift towards renewable energy, particularly solar, is increasingly viable and beneficial. Not only does it contribute to environmental conservation efforts, but it also holds the promise of substantial savings on your electricity bill. Let’s harness the power of the sun together.